Being filled with all unrighteousness - αδικια, every vice contrary to justice and righteousness.
Fornication - Πορνειᾳ, all commerce between the sexes out of the bounds of lawful marriage. Some of the best MSS. omit this reading; and others have ακαθαρσιᾳ, uncleanness.
Wickedness - Πονηριᾳ, malignity, that which is oppressive to its possessor and to its object; from πονος, labor, toil, etc.
Covetousness - Πλεονεξιᾳ, from πλειον, more, and ἑξω, I will have; the intense love or lust of gain; the determination to be rich; the principle of a dissatisfied and discontented soul.
Maliciousness - Κακιᾳ, malice, ill-will; what is radically and essentially vicious.
Full of envy - Φθονου, from φθινω, to wither, decay, consume, pine away, etc.; "pain felt and malignity conceived at the sight of excellence or happiness in another." A fine personification of this vice is found in Ovid Metam. lib. ii. ver. 768-781, which I shall here insert, with Mr. Addison's elegant and nervous translation.
- Videt intus edentem
Vipereas carnes, vitiorum alimenta suorum
Invidiam: visaque oculos avertit. At illa
Surgit humo pigra: semesarumque relinquit
Corpora serpentum, passuque incedit inerti.
Utgue deam vidit formaque armisque decoram,
Ingemuit: vultumque ima ad suspiria duxit.
Pallor in Ore sedet: macies in Corpore toto:
Nusquam recta acies: livent rubigine dentes:
Pectora felle virent: lingua est suffusa veneno.
Risus abest, nisi quem visi movere dolores:
Nec fruitur somno, vigilacibus excita curis:
Sed videt ingratos, intabescitque videndo
Successus hominum; carpitgue et carpitur una;
Suppliciumque suum est.
- A poisonous morsel in her teeth she chewed,
And gorged the flesh of vipers for her food.
Minerva loathing, turned away her eye.
The hideous monster, rising heavily,
Came stalking forward with a sullen pace,
And left her mangled offals on the place.
Soon as she saw the goddess gay and bright,
She fetched a groan at such a cheerful sight.
Livid and meagre were her looks, her eye
In foul distorted glances turned awry;
A hoard of gall her inward parts possessed,
And spread a greenness o'er her canker'd breast;
Her teeth were brown with rust, and from her tongue
In dangling drops the stringy poison hung.
She never smiles but when the wretched weep;
Nor lulls her malice with a moment's sleep:
Restless in spite while watchful to destroy,
She pines and sickens at another's joy;
Foe to herself, distressing and distressed,
She bears her own tormentor in her breast.
Murder - Φονου, taking away the life of another by any means; mortal hatred; for he that hates his brother in his heart is a murderer.
Debate - Εριδος, contention, discord, etc. Of this vile passion the Greeks made a goddess.
Deceit - Δολου, lying, falsity, prevarication, imposition, etc.; from δελω, to take with a bait.
Malignity - Κακοηθειας, from κακος, evil, and ηθος, a custom; bad customs, founded in corrupt sentiment, producing evil habits, supported by general usage. It is generally interpreted, a malignity of mind, which leads its possessor to put the worst construction on every action; ascribing to the best deeds the worst motives.
Whisperers - ψιθυριστος, secret detractors; those who, under pretended secrecy, carry about accusations against their neighbors, whether true or false; blasting their reputation by clandestine tittle-tattle. This word should be joined to the succeeding verse.
The whispering is well expressed by the Greek word Ψιθυριστας, psithuristas .