is a general term used for "an anointing" of any kind, whether of physical refreshment after washing, e.g., in the Sept. of Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 12:20; Daniel 10:3; Micah 6:15; in the NT, Matthew 6:17; Luke 7:38,46; John 11:2; 12:3; or of the sick, Mark 6:13; James 5:14; or a dead body, Mark 16:1 . The material used was either oil, or ointment, as in Luke 7:38,46 . In the Sept. it is also used of "anointing" a pillar, Genesis 31:13 , or captives, 2 Chronicles 28:15 , or of daubing a wall with mortar, Ezekiel 13:10-12,14,15; and, in the sacred sense, of "anointing" priests, in Exodus 40:15 (twice), and Numbers 3:3 .
is more limited in its use than No. 1; it is confined to "sacred and symbolical anointings;" of Christ as the "Anointed" of God, Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38 , and Hebrews 1:9 , where it is used metaphorically in connection with "the oil of gladness." The title Christ signifies "The Anointed One," The word (Christos) is rendered "(His) Anointed" in Acts 4:26 , RV. Once it is said of believers, 2 Corinthians 1:21 . Chrio is very frequent in the Sept., and is used of kings, 1 Samuel 10:1 , and priests, Exodus 28:41 , and prophets, 1 Kings 19:16 . Among the Greeks it was used in other senses than the ceremonial, but in the Scriptures it is not found in connection with secular matters.
primarily, "to rub in," hence, "to besmear, to anoint," is used metaphorically in the command to the church in Laodicea to "anoint" their eyes with eyesalve, Revelation 3:18 . In the Sept., Jeremiah 4:30 , it is used of the "anointing" of the eyes with a view to beautifying them.
primarily, "to rub on" (epi, "upon"), is used of the blind man whose eyes Christ "anointed," and indicates the manner in which the "anointing" was done, John 9:6,11 .
is used of "anointing" the body for burial, in Mark 14:8 .
the corresponding noun to No. 2, above, signifies "an unguent, or an anointing." It was prepared from oil and aromatic herbs. It is used only metaphorically in the NT; by metonymy, of the Holy Spirit, 1 John 2:20,27 , twice. The RV translates it "anointing" in all three places, instead of the AV "unction" and "anointing."