signifies, in the Active Voice, "to shine;" in the Passive, "to be brought forth into light, to become evident, to appear." In Romans 7:13 , concerning sin, the RV has "might be shewn to be," for AV, "appear."
a strengthened form of No. 1 but differing in meaning, epi signifying "upon," is used in the Active Voice with the meaning "to give light," Luke 1:79; in the Passive Voice, "to appear, become visible." It is said of heavenly bodies, e.g., the stars, Acts 27:20 (RV, "shone"); metaphorically, of things spiritual, the grace of God, Titus 2:11; the kindness and the love of God, Titus 3:4 . See LIGHT. Cp. epiphaneia, B, No. 2.
ana, "forth, or up," perhaps originally a nautical term, "to come up into view," hence, in general, "to appear suddenly," is used in the Passive Voice, in Luke 19:11 , of the Kingdom of God; Active Voice, in Acts 21:3 , "to come in sight of," RV; "having sighted" would be a suitable rendering (AV, "having discovered").
akin to No. 1, signifies, in the Active Voice, "to manifest;" in the Passive Voice, "to be manifested;" so, regularly, in the RV, instead of "to appear." See 2 Corinthians 7:12; Colossians 3:4; Hebrews 9:26; 1 Peter 5:4; 1 John 2:28; 3:2; Revelation 3:18 . To be manifested, in the Scriptural sense of the word, is more than to "appear." A person may "appear" in a false guise or without a disclosure of what he truly is; to be manifested is to be revealed in one's true character; this is especially the meaning of phaneroo, see, e.g., John 3:21; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:10,11; Ephesians 5:13 .
from en, "in," intensive, and phaino, "to shine," is used, either of "physical manifestation," Matthew 27:53; Hebrews 9:24; cp. John 14:22 , or, metaphorically, of "the manifestation of Christ" by the Holy Spirit in the spiritual experience of believers who abide in His love, John 14:21 . It has another, secondary meaning, "to make known, signify, inform." This is confined to the Acts, where it is used five times, Acts 23:15,22; 24:1; 25:2,15 . There is perhaps a combination of the two meanings in Hebrews 11:14 , i.e., to declare by oral testimony and to "manifest" by the witness of the life. See INFORM , MANIFEST , SHEW , SIGNIFY.
"to see" (from ops, "the eye;" cp. Eng. "optical," etc.), in the Passive sense, "to be seen, to appear," is used (a) objectively, with reference to the person or thing seen, e.g., 1 Corinthians 15:5-8 , RV "appeared," for AV, "was seen;" (b) subjectively, with reference to an inward impression or a spiritual experience, John 3:36 , or a mental occupation, Acts 18:15 , "look to it;" cp. Matthew 27:4,24 , "see (thou) to it," "see (ye) to it," throwing responsibility on others. Optomai is to be found in dictionaries under the word horao, "to see;" it supplies some forms that are lacking in that verb.
in the Middle Voice signifies "to allow oneself to be seen." It is rendered "appearing" in Acts 1:3 , RV, for AV, "being seen," of the Lord's "appearances" after His resurrection; the Middle Voice expresses the personal interest the Lord took in this.
lit., "an uncovering, unveiling" (apo, "from," kalupto, "to hide, cover"), denotes "a revelation, or appearing" (Eng., apocalypse). It is translated "the appearing" in 1 Peter 1:7 , AV (RV, "revelation"). See COMING , MANIFESTATION , REVELATION.
"epiphany," lit., "a shining forth," was used of the "appearance" of a god to men, and of an enemy to an army in the field, etc. In the NT it occurs of (a) the advent of the Savior when the Word became flesh, 2 Timothy 1:10; (b) the coming of the Lord Jesus into the air to the meeting with His saints, 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1,8; (c) the shining forth of the glory of the Lord Jesus "as the lightning cometh forth from the east, and is seen even unto the west," Matthew 24:27 , immediately consequent on the unveiling, apokalupsis, of His Parousia in the air with His saints, 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Titus 2:13 .* [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 263.]