primarily, of metals (e.g., the Sept. of Proverbs 8:10; 17:3 ), signifies "to prove," e.g., 1 John 4:1 , more frequently to prove with a view to approval, e.g., Romans 1:28 , AV, "they did not like to retain God in their knowledge;" RV, "they refused;" marg., "did not approve," the true meaning. Their refusal was not the outcome of ignorance; they had the power to make a deliberate choice; they willfully disapproved of having God in their knowledge.
lit., "to set together" (sun, "with," histemi, "to stand"), hence signifies "to set one person or thing with another by way of presenting and commending." This meaning is confined to Romans and 2Corinthians. The saints at Corinth had "approved themselves in everything to be pure," in the matter referred to, 2 Corinthians 7:11 . The word often denotes "to commend," so as to meet with approval, Romans 3:5; 5:8; 16:1; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 6:4 (RV); 10:18; 12:11, etc. See COMMEND , COMPACTED , CONSIST (No. 2), STAND.
lit., "to point out, to exhibit" (apo, "forth," deiknumi, "to show"), is used once in the sense of proving by demonstration, and so bringing about an "approval." The Lord Jesus was "a Man approved of God by mighty works and wonders and signs," Acts 2:22 . See PROVE , SET , No. 17, SHEW.
akin to dechomai, "to receive," always signifies "approved;" so the RV everywhere, e.g., in James 1:12 for AV, "when he is tried." The word is used of coins and metals in the Sept.; in Genesis 23:16 , "four hundred didrachms of silver approved with merchants;" in Zechariah 11:13 , in regard to the 30 pieces of silver, "Cast them into a furnace and I will see if it is good (approved) metal."